Country of origin and import laws control the information on pottery imported to the United States. A stamp or marking with the country of origin usually indicates an item made after 1891, the date of enactment of the Mc Kinley Tariff Act in the United States.This act required that country of origin be marked on all imports. Changes enacted to the Tariff Act in 1914 required the words "made in," followed by the country of origin.East Germany used various marks, including GDR or German Democratic Republic until the 1990 unification.The unified country used "Made in Germany" after 1990.More recent pieces include numbers with a W, S, O or 2/ in front of them from 1939 onward.Marks on Copeland Spode are impressed, painted or transfer printed onto individual pieces.Some pieces also have a workman's mark in addition to the company's mark from the Spode factory that ran from 1780 to 1833.
Dating pottery and history intertwine as the pottery marks reflect changes in import and export laws established by the countries.
The lion was the heraldic animal of the Wittelsbach family, which ruled Bavaria for nearly 1,000 years.
Some marks show a crown, a common symbol of a royal license that might have a cross rising from its center or sitting atop a pair of intertwined Cs.
Once Europe discovered the secret of kaolin and fine porcelain-making, the powerful families who controlled the clay quarries opened china factories.
Bavaria had high-quality clay quarries; its first potteries were named, and sometimes marked, for historic or contemporary rulers.